Anthracite Coal Mining in PA

or the life of a coal miner and his family

My Great Great grandfather and his sons all worked in the coal mines in Lykens/Wiconisco Pennsylvania. Therefor I have an interest in what it means to work in coal mines and all the particulars as to how it affected their lives and the families lives. I don’t have an outline of what I wish to post here or thoughts for any organization. I only got the idea form this first section I found in a Lykens newspaper.

I found this newspaper article on “Newspapers.com“. So there may be a copyright concern here, but at present I am presuming this is free license and I can copy and paste. If anyone has information to the contrary, please advise and I shall remove this.

From time to time I hope to add other pertinent information about the life of a coal miner here.

Thank you, Mike Schindler

Article or section 1

Williamstown Colliery Notes of 1871

>>>from the LYKENS Register Jan 5 1872<<<

Few persons unacquainted with the mining of coal imagine what immense amount of work is necessary to produce the article.  A complete history of the development of coal in this valley would prove to the uninitiated that not only is liberal use of muscle, brought into action by judicious application of money, and directed by business energy, but perseverance and brains of superior character are required.

Even after a successful development, the same order of things must be continued, especially where the production is so great as that of the collieries of the Summit Branch Railroad and Lykens Valley Coal Companies, which operate the mines in this `season’, working on the lowest veins of coal known in the anthracite region.  That the present production of these collieries is unequalled by any in the State, and therefore in the United States, is very well known; and as the quality of the coal is unsurpassed, even the enormous amount of 491,161.10 tons produced during the year 1871 was not sufficient to supply the demand.

Our intention, however, is not to give at the present time a history of the coal development in this region, nor of the varying fortunes which attended those who engaged in the early efforts at unlocking the riches hidden in the mountains of Williams and Lykens Valleys, but rather to give a mere sketch of the doings of the Williamstown colliery during the past year.

Some of the improvements made at the Williamstown colliery have from time to time been mentioned in these columns, but there will be no harm to connect them in one article, and perhaps some day in the future the historian of coal statistics may be slightly assisted by the columns of the “Register1.

From the time Maj. Joseph Anthony became managing superintendent, the production of this colliery has been increased enormously, and the other collieries have also in like manner been made to increase their value and productiveness since the management has been under his control.  At Williamstown, the veins known by the miners as the “Little” and “Big” veins would not hold out long on the Tunnel level under the vigorous hands of the force employed in dislodging the black diamonds from their ancient beds, and therefore provision must necessarily be made to open a new but deeper supply.  For this purpose, a slope became necessary, and so preparations were made a little over a year ago to sink on.  Room was required inside of the tunnel for placing machinery to hoist the coal, pump out the water collecting in the slope and keep it in working order.

A point on the gangway on the “Big” vein about one hundred and fifty yards west of the tunnel was selected for the sinking of the new slope and work at once commenced.  This first work was cutting across to the gangway to the “Little” vein, through which it was found most convenient to convey coal mined in the slope to the outside.  In making the cross-cut or tunnel from one vein to the other ample room was allowed to place sufficient machinery for the working of the slope. A strong force, under the vigorous pushing of Mr. William Thomas, the mining foreman, completed the cross-cut, blasted out a space on the gangway of the “Little” vein sufficiently large to place six boilers in position and still allow room for the passage of wagons, drove an airway up to the surface through that vein, which was walled and arched the entire length in the most substantial manner, while the gangway was enlarged and timbered of sufficient width and height to the tunnel to admit the laying of a double track, that as soon as laid, served to convey the six boilers to the beds prepared for them, and as soon as placed thereon the masons were put to work at walling in and covering them; at the same time  the rock men began the work of excavating a pit eighteen feet deep and twelve feet wide in the cross-cut, which was to serve as a receptacle for the drum and large cog-wheels needed in winding the rope for hoisting and lowering wagons in the slope.

The drum is ten feet in diameter and ten feet wide. Directly beside, but above the main shaft of the drum, is placed the double or link motion engine, having two cylinders with other necessary connections, and is calculated for two fifty horse power.  Steam is conveyed to the engine through pipes leading along the roof and side of the cross-cut a distance of about fifty yards, while the exhaust pipes are led in the same manner from the engine to the condenser.  Pure water being of the greatest economical value, the supply for the boilers—as well as for the other boilers in use for the outside machinery—is obtained from a reservoir on Berry’s Mountain through three-inch pipe a distance of 1900 yards, from whence it flows into a tank situated about three hundred and eighty feet perpendicularly below the tunnel level, and is pumped from that point, a distance of six hundred yards into a tank capable of holding one thousand seven hundred gallons.  This tank is twenty-eight feet above the tunnel level on Big Lick Mountain. 

  It is then conducted through two inch galvanized iron pipes to the condenser, where it is partially heated by the exhaust steam, from which a double key pump is used to force into the boilers.

A strong stone arch was also built in the cross-cut, from the top of the slope to the engine, for the purpose of securing that portion of the roof from all possibility of breaking down, which there was a probability of its doing from the fact that the overlying rock there showed some signs of weakness, though such an event may not have occurred for years. Picture above from link posted from a blog called “Lykens Valley

The slope was sunt by contract to a depth of two hundred and twenty-five yards, twenty-two feet wide and the height of the vein.  Three shifts of three miners each, with the usual number of laborers, completed their portion of the work—or rather, they sank the slope as per contract—in seventy days, having been delayed in that time some two or three days by the horrible accident that befell on of the laborers in being crushed to death by a wagon accidently breaking from the rope while being hoised, he being caught between the descending wagon and the coal at the bottom.  After the required depth had been reached, work was at once commenced on the gangways east and west.

While the slope was yet going down, other miners followed the slope men and cut into the vein at right angles, and on reaching the proper point, began to drive up an air-way to the gangway on the tunnel level.  This was followed by others who commenced still lower down, so that by the time the gangway at the bottom reached far enough in the same direction others again commenced to make for the point higher up to where those who preceded them had commenced.  In this manner no time was lots, and by the time the space intended to be occupied by the fan was enlarged to the necessary size—the fan—the engine for running it—with all the other necessary work==was completed, the steam pipes connected with the boilers used to supply the slope engine and the fan was ready to duck out all the smoke and foul air generated not only in the gangways at the bottom, but also, such as may arise from any number of breasts that may be worked at one time.

Hoisting the water collected at the bottom by means of the water wagons, would have become a process that could not be otherwise than an interference with the hoisting of coal and thereby decrease the quantity.  A seam pump with a column of pipe ten inches in diameter has lately been put down the pump way that had been driven for the purpose, so that no interference from water collecting at the bottom need be feared. The machinery for the pump is also supplied with steam from the boilers above, but as the distance is great, the condensation of steam causes too much waste, but the condensation of steam causes too much waste, but the pipes will be entirely covered with heavy felting, a good non-conductor, that will in future prevent this loss.

One slope being found load adequate to the performance of a sufficient amount of work, another is about being completed a distance of one hundred and twenty-fire yards below the tunnel level to the gangway leading eastward, on the “Big” vein, one hundred and twenty-five yards from the main tunnel. It will be seen that this slope is not so deep by one hundred yards as the first slope, sunk on the west side, because it is intended to be used only for hoisting coal mined on the counter gangway driven along the vein at that depth on the east side of the main slope.

The old tunnel level gangway on the east side and counter gangways above it have been carried very nearly if not quite to the boundary of the tract, so this portion of the vein will cease producing when the breaks have been worked out and pillars taken down.  All the larger and most important improvements that have been mentioned must not be supposed to embrace the entire list: so may minor ones having been made that their enumeration and description here would spin out this article to a length that would require more space than could be afforded.

Improvements on the outside have not, by any means been so general or important, and were confined principally to supply the increased wants of the lands, though some time was spent during the early portion of the year in repairing the breaker.  That such repairs were needed can readily be imagined when the work done the previous year is taken into consideration. An entirely new engine was put into it to replace the old one, transferred to the inside for running the ventilating fan. This engine is very compact and substantially built and is calculated equal to forty horse power. Other portions of machinery that had been worn were replaced by new, and all points showing the least sign of weakness were properly strengthened. Mention has been made of the manner of supplying water, but in addition to that, a small reservoir on Berry’s mountain was constructed last spring about ninety feet perpendicular being the old one, for the purpose of collecting all waste water from the upper in time of scarcity caused by unusual drouth. A small engine beside this reservoir serves to force the water collected there through the main pipe up to the tank from whence it is pumped to the colliery.

Mules have been the motive power for hauling loaded wagons for so many years that any innovation of this method of conveyance from the mines is regarded with almost as much jealousy by the miners as was evinced by the introduction of railroads and steam power by the teamsters in the good old days when horse flesh and Conestoga wagons were considered as the ue plus ultra of convenience.  Economically, there is no doubt but that the locomotive will soon replace mules about mining operations for all heavy work, if the inconvenience of escaping gases and steam can be overcome without expensive alteration in ventilation. Lately, we are informed, Major Anthony, the Superintendent, resolved to discontinue the use of the locomotive in the Williamstown Colliery, because it was found to incommode some of the miners from the unavoidable issue of gases while passing to and fro, with the intention of transferring it to the Lykens Valley colliery for outside purposes.

Accidents were few in number when compared with other mines less extensive, and but two deaths ensued from injuries received at these works. One was instantly killed in the slope and the other died by lockjaw brought on by having sustained a compound fracture of on of his legs while attempting to get on a train of loaded wagons coming out of the tunnel.  W.D.H.M.
[We shall next week give an account of the operations of other collieries in this region for 1871, with Improvements made and in contemplation—Ed.]

Clausthal German Mining History

File size 4.79MB Permission granted by the author to post this translation to my family tree.

Note:  This publication received by the author by email.  I have taken the liberty to use Google translate to convert this into English.  Google translate works, however some words will not translate directly and I shall not attempt at this time to make a literal translation.  I have made no attempt to arrange sentences in a more logical way as the spoken or written English would appear.  I believe the story comes through here very clearly, and more importantly you will realize the whole way through that this is written in a foreign language.  I love the way this worked out, but that is my opinion.  You the reader will see the format as close to it was when I received it from the author.  You will notice many words written in German that have obvious English meanings.

I hope you enjoy reading this as much as I did.  It is not often you can read something that takes you back to the days of our ancestor’s as this writing does.  If the author gives me permission I will share this, but if not it will be only for my viewing pleasure.

Mike Schindler, Camp Hill, Pa.

 Clausthal und St. Andreasberg im Oberharz
Clausthal und St. Andreasberg im Oberharz

By Maren Dieke

 Kurzfassung zu Geschichte, Lebensverhältnissen und Bergbau vom Mittelalter bis zum 19. Jahrhundert zusammengestellt
Summary of history, living conditions and mining from the Middle Ages to the 19th compiled century

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Inhaltsverzeichnis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2

  1. Einleitung: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
  2. Harzer Bergbau im Mittelalter ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
  3. Das „große Berggeschrei“ ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
  4. Kurze Geschichte von St. Andreasberg …………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
  5. Kurze Geschichte von Clausthal …………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
  6. Bergarbeit ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
  7. Arbeitsunfälle und Krankheiten …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
  8. Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

8.1. Klimatische Bedingungen ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18

8.2. Frauenarbeit …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22

8.3. Kinderarbeit ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

8.4. Vogelzucht ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

  1. Auswanderung ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
  2. Glossar ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
  3. Literaturliste……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

Table of Contents

Table of Contents 2

1 Introduction: 3

2 Harz mining in the Middle Ages 3

3 The ” great mountain shouting ” 5

4 Brief History of St. Andrew Berg …………………………………….. ………………………………………….. …. 7

5 Brief History of Clausthal 10

6 mountain work 11

7 Occupational accidents and diseases 15

8 Living and working conditions 17

8.1. Climatic conditions 18

8.2. women’s work 22

8.3. child labor 25

8.4. aviculture 26

9 emigration 27

10th Glossary 30   11th 32
1. Einleitung

“Before the course begins to build miner, he must observe seven different: Erdoberflächenform, Erdoberflächenbeschaffenheit, water, roads, air, territorial sovereignty, neighbor”

Georg Agricola in 1559

Since the end of the Neolithic came up the processing of copper, man seeks strengthened by metal ores. Was it at the beginning of above-ground ore had to be dug deeper and deeper into the mountains over time . This required greater expertise and led to an increasingly sophisticated mining techniques . Specific professions developed ( Steiger, Pocharbeiter , Mined ) with a specific jargon that the layman is only revealed partially . All regions but were influenced by the ore , the manners and customs of the miners by the mine-specific environmental damage. One of the oldest mining areas in Germany , the Harz , a low mountain range in northern Germany , now part of the territories of the states of Lower Saxony and Saxony- Anhalt. The beginnings of the resin -rich mining probably back to prehistoric times . Is currently believed that ores were mined as early as the Bronze Age. Archaeological evidence are Germanic ferrous metal smelters at Daugava / Osterode around 300 AD.

Clausthal, Germany
Market Luthern Church and the German Institute of Mining

  1. Harzer Bergbau im Mittelalter

 

From the year 968, there is a documented confirmation of absorption of silver mining in the Rammelsberg near Goslar. After many Harz miners had moved to Freiberg in the Ore Mountains to the exploitation of newly discovered silver find spots already in 1168, it came in 1180 to a further exodus of Goslar in the Ore Mountains. Cause was the destruction of the imperial mines at Rammelsberg by the Guelphs in the war between the Emperor Barbarossa and Duke Henry the Lion. In Freiberg, the name “Sächsstadt” still on the Goslar HIN1.

Abb. 1: Erzlager und Siedlungen im Westharz2, rechts: Abb. 2: Die Landesherren von St. Andreasberg3

Figure 1: mineral reserves and settlements in Westharz2, right: Figure 2: The rulers of St. Andreasberg3 NOTE: figures to be added later.

In the 14th Century mining operations came to a standstill in the Upper Harz. This was partly probably because it was no longer possible to reduce above-ground ores (pinging). Bays only went down to a depth 10-11 Lachter (20-22 m) 4 Then the water and the problems of weather feed (oxygen supply) stopped the deeper mining. The technical knowledge of that time was not sufficient to reduce intra-day in great style. Also, the road network was not well enough developed to bring the assisted ores easily trade places. The final blow came in 1348 by the great plague that nearly entvölkerte5 the Upper Harz.

During the Middle Ages there were different owners in the resin (Fig. 2). (Founded in 1127), next to the Emperor, the Cistercian Monastery Walkenried, several counties (Scharzfeld, rain Blankenburg, Hohn stone), it was mainly the Guelphs, the – split into different lines – promoted the mining industry. The mountain towns Zellerfeld, Wild Man, According to Thal and reason were the line Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Clausthal relaxed Sunday and St. Andrew mountain of Brunswick-Luneburg-Grubenhagen. Through the extinction of the Wolfenbüttel line 1634, there was a redistribution of the seven remaining Guelph princes whose jurisdiction temporarily changed annually until the area in the end of the Elector of Hanover and King fiel6

3 The “great mountain shouting” 7

 

As can be seen from a traditional instrument to disputes between two disciplines (mining operations) through mine fields, was already in 1487 (today Bad Loud Hill) for ore in the area of St. Andrew mountain in county Lutterberg again. This was not yet a country from the Lord (the Counts of Hohenstein as vassals of the dukes of Calenberg-Grubenhagen) support to private companies with mining but probably only a small Umfang8. Already in 1470 to the Count Heinrich of Stollberg and Dietrich of wit life (bailiff to Sangerhausen) haben9 taken first mines back into operation.

After silver was discovered in 1520 promised a greater future earnings , enacted the Count Heinrich and Ernst von Hohenstein , gentlemen Lohra and Velcro Mountain, in 1521, a first mountain freedom of the Saxon- Bohemian model. Despite the far-reaching benefits at a time when serfdom prevailed in the country, only miners were out of the room Joachimsthal10 St. (now Jachymov ) attracted in the Ore Mountains , as the local mining just stuck in a crisis. In Mansfeld ( copper mining ) as well as in the rest of Saxon and Bohemian Erzgebirge mining flourished too , as the resin with its still too small finds could be attractive können11 .

But six years later, it was quite different : After the announcement of the second mountain freedom of Hohnsteiner Count ( 1527 ) put a large immigration from various parts of the Erzgebirge (especially Freiberg , Annaberg ) , and probably also from a Mansfeld . Pit with all their workforces Increase subjected closed in the resin. They brought modern knowledge in the Harz mountain seven cities and their dialect of the Upper Harz prägt12.Ob already came up today at this time miners from Tirol – as mentioned in the older literature – can not be proven .

The beginnings of the silver rush in the St. Andrew Berg must have been desolate. There was the law of the jungle and it was herumgeschürft haphazardly . They lived in primitive accommodation on site, during the administrative headquarters as well as the official residence in the spots on the edge of the Harz mountain Loud lagen13 .

In order to prevent the worst excesses of a mountain Code was adopted in 1528 . In it, the mine was operating legally regulated and established a mining authority as a regulatory body . In order to greatly shorten the daily traveling distances to the pits , leaving the Sovereign same gründen14 a permanent settlement for the miners and their families on the mountain. This is the official founding year of the mountain town of St. Andrew Berg.

Modeled on the mountain Hohnsteiner freedoms enacted in 1532 Duke Henry the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel also a mountain in the area of ​​freedom Zellerfeld. (Fig. 3). Miners came back from the Erzgebirge, which now also brought their Protestant religion and defended fiercely against the Roman Catholic Duke. The ducal Rekatholisierungsversuche (1541) failed due to the threat of the miners to emigrate again.

22 years later (1554) also drew Duke Ernst IV of Grubenhagen in and let the dilapidated mines in the Clausthälern belegen15 again.

Brief History of St. Andreasberg16

To 1157 were the monks of the monastery Walkenried designated by them on “St. Andrews Mountain “probably for ore prospecting
13th Century: Hugh of Dorrefeld is proven to be the richest mine owners (in 1287 he must pit his possession to a civil pledge Goslar)
1347 to depopulation of the Upper Harz
1487 first mention of “sanct andrews the mountain”
1521 The Count of Hohenstein adopt the first mountain freedom, at St. Andrew Berg, the Samson Pit was founded
1528 settlement of St. Andrew Berg is founded “on the mountain” in connection with the adoption of a mining order by the sovereign. It was named after St. Andrew, the patron saint of Mansfeld miners
In 1537 the town charter. At this time, the place already comprised 300 houses with about 2000 inhabitants. Council and judges take office. 116 mines operated
1542-1549 first crisis in which to bring the mines do not yield
1550 establishment of Andreas Berger Silberhütte with high yield
1570 first heyday of Andreas Berger silver mining, and the city has 7000-8000 people
24/05/1576 rainwater floods destroy the road network
1577 only 39 mines in operation, of which only two get a yield
1577 plague epidemic
1579 constantly declining yield leads to a strong depletion of the population
1593 St. Andrew Berg gets a hammer coin, which is in operation to 1629
1596 plague epidemic
1611-1624 The trades generate highly indebted in their remaining 16 pits no longer yield. The mining comes to a halt
1624 demolition of the Silver Hut and resolution of the Bureau of Mines
A plague epidemic in 1625, the population drops to 1,000 people
1648 At the end of the Thirty Years’ War, there is – apart from Clausthal – in the Upper Harz mining scheduled no more, because both money and manpower are missing
The 1653 crop is banned because it binds workers. For a short time the work will be resumed in two pits
As 1655 Duke Christian Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg cares about the restoration of mining
1663 the St. Andrew Berger Mining Authority arises also the Silver Hut to be rebuilt
1669-1672 The mining industry rests, since no increase in water available for the water wheels
1672: The Mining Authority takes over the management, the trades only pay a Zubuße or get the yield
1674: After 60 years, the first silver recovery takes place. Thanks yield from the thaler “Andreae montani Ludovici haec munera venae” is (miners to mine the mountain on St. Andrew Ludwig deliver these gifts to the lodes) marked
1683-1703: Due to weather-related water shortages occur several times to shutdowns, temporarily, the yield rises again, the so-called Rehberger Graben is built
1700-1730: With a silver recovery of 1000-2000 kg per year, there is a second mining heyday of 1714-1721 Oderteich, 1716 Sieber, the tunnel will be built
After 1730, the costs for silver recovery and simultaneously decreases the yield
1739/1740 The population is 3415, of which 388 are mining and metallurgy, and 158 people Pochknaben
1765: In the mountain town of 2573 inhabitants
from about 1775 through technical improvements, the mines and smelting costs are reduced
1796 in a fire on 8 October, destroyed 249 houses, which were built mostly thanks to existing insurance quickly

Brief History of Clausthal18

 

Abb. 5: Der Marktplatz in Clausthal 1865 mit Marktkirche, Oberbergamt (Mitte links) und Bergakademie. Aquarell von Wilhelm Ripe (1818-1885). Archiv Oberharzer Bergwerksmuseum19

Figure 5: The marketplace in Clausthal 1865 Market Church, Oberbergamt (center left) and Mountain Academy. Watercolor by Wilhelm Ripe (1818-1885). Archive Oberharzer Bergwerksmuseum19

 

1554 Duke Ernst IV of Calenberg-Grubenhagen granted a mountain freedom to rebuild the ruined mines in the Clausthälern
1625: The plague victims over 1,350 calls
1626 of the imperial general Tilly occupied the allied Clausthal and Zellerfeld enemy destroyed the neighboring
1634 total 160 houses and church, coin, town hall, school will be destroyed in a great fire
1639 a further 50 houses from burning
1642 construction of the parish church Clausthal
In 1725 a major fire destroyed 400 houses
1732/34 establishing the Sperber Hauer dam, an aqueduct of 1000 m length and 16 m height
1756-1763: In the Seven Years War, the French occupy multiple Clausthal. The mountain towns pay in the Seven Years War, a war tax to the French high
Occupiers to prevent the threatened mine destruction, fire and subsidence Bevölkerungsausplünderungen
1799 completion of the “depths Georg tunnel”
1807 Napoleon assumed Clausthal the Kingdom of Westphalia
1833 Louis William Doerell reinvents driving skills, which greatly facilitates getting into a mine
1924 merger with the neighboring town of the municipality of Clausthal-Zellerfeld
  1. Bergarbeit20

6 Bergarbeit20

“Given below is a confused noise and hum, you come resistant to beams and ropes that are moving to the tonnes tapped ores or hervorgesinterte water heraufzuwinden. Sometimes you get in through carved corridors, called tunnels, where the ore grow and see where the solitary miner sitting all day and cumbersome to hammer the pieces of ore out of the wall knocks ”

Heinrich Heine in the autumn of 1824 after his visit to the Clausthal pit Caroline and Dorothea21

Over time, the changes in work underground, thanks to new inventions – but how it looked in the early days?

In the Middle Ages, the mines were small businesses with a field size of 7 x 7 Lach Tern. A mining depth 20-30 m could only be achieved if the ground water could be kept low in adjacent pits. It involved the water servants “who were on trips (ladders) and the” Bulgen “(bucket) each zureichten22. With the help of Schlegel, iron and wedge hoe (Fig. 6) to an average distance of advance of about 1 cm per man-shift could be achieved (relative to 1.7 m). To hoist the ore, enough with the small Stollenteufe a simple reel (Fig. 7).

Below Picture, “Water is raised by water”

            This probably explained by the author as I copy and paste here, but the miners in Harz had an ingenious method of using water wheels to bring water out of the depths of the mine shafts so the miners could dig to deeper and deeper depths, as well as using the water wheels to bring up the ore in buckets as the miners using hand tools extracted the ore from the walls of the tunnels.  (mike schindler added comment)

Thanks to the revolutionary hydropower technology in the 16th Century developed, the mining could enter a new phase after 1520th The interplay of ponds, ditches and tunnels, which collected the water and / or water wheel drives, to advance the mining industry in previously unreachable depths succeeded. At the same time the problem of groundwater elevation was corrected with the help of water drainage gallery. The latter were beaten by hand (only with sticks and iron) in the mountain – up to 1606 a total of 22,000 m Wasserlösungsstrecke23 could be completed.

In order to transport the mined ore in the tunnel was in the 2nd Half of the 16th Century, the usual run of the carts so-called “dogs” or “Hunten” replaced. Below is a four-wheeled wooden trolley to understand the “led by a mounted between the front wheels track between two nail nailed to the sole of the tunnels and routes slats” .24

When the tunnels were always deeper, you led in the second Half of the 16th A century the Pferdegöpel and about 1620 the Kehrrad. With a gin hand the amount of 20 reels could be pulled at a shaft depth of 200 m at once if you started 4 draft horses. Even more meaningful was the water wheels (reciprocal wheels). In the Samson Pit in St. Andrew Mountain, you can admire a preserved Kehrrad, which has a diameter of 9 m. By 1900, 88 water wheels in St. Andrew Berg were in operation.

They were driven by the water of the ditch Rehberger. When the pit number increased, the water of the ditch Rehberger was no longer sufficient. Therefore, the first dam was built between 1714-1721 in Europe, the Oderteich built. It has a capacity of 1,600,000 m³ .25